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It is not surprising that the first flight of the spacecraft above Earth orbit was directed to the moon. This honor belongs to the Soviet spacecraft Luna-l, which was launched on January 2, 1958. In accordance with the flight program, after a few days it passed at a distance of 6,000 kilometers from the surface of the moon. Later that same year, in mid-September, a similar Moon series device reached the surface of the Earth’s natural satellite.
A year later, in October 1959, the Luna-3 automatic apparatus, equipped with apparatus for photographing, surveyed the far side of the Moon (about 70% of the surface) and transmitted its image to Earth. The device had an orientation system with sensors of the Sun and the Moon and jet engines running on compressed gas, Continue reading
When, when moving around the Earth, the Moon falls into the cone of the earth’s shadow, which is cast by the globe illuminated by the Sun, a total lunar eclipse occurs. If only a part of the Moon plunges into the shadow of the Earth, then a partial eclipse occurs. A total lunar eclipse can last about 1.5 to 2 hours. It can be observed from all over the night hemisphere of the Earth, where the moon is above the horizon at the time of the eclipse. Therefore, in any area, full lunar eclipses can be observed much more often than solar ones.
During a total lunar eclipse of the moon, the lunar disk remains visible, but it usually acquires a dark red hue. This phenomenon is explained by the refraction of sunlight in the earth’s atmosphere. Passing through the earth’s atmosphere, the sun’s rays are scattered and refracted. Moreover, mainly short-wave radiation is Continue reading
Since the mass of the moon is negligible, the gas shell around it must be very rarefied, i.e. practically absent. The main components of the gas shell were hydrogen, helium, neon, and argon. The highest density is observed at night and corresponds to about 2 · 105 cm – 3. in the daytime, the gas concentration drops to 104 cm – 3 in terms of density at the surface. Therefore, we can speak with good reason about the presence of some kind of gas shell around the moon.
The moon has practically no global magnetic field of a dipole nature. This circumstance explains the peculiarities of the interaction of the Moon with the stream of charged particles of the solar wind, which consists mainly of protons and electrons with the addition of ionized helium and other heavier elements with different degrees of ionization. The moon is a non-magnetic, relatively non-conductive and cold dielectric sphere. Continue reading