It is not surprising that the first flight of the spacecraft above Earth orbit was directed to the moon. This honor belongs to the Soviet spacecraft Luna-l, which was launched on January 2, 1958. In accordance with the flight program, after a few days it passed at a distance of 6,000 kilometers from the surface of the moon. Later that same year, in mid-September, a similar Moon series device reached the surface of the Earth’s natural satellite.
A year later, in October 1959, the Luna-3 automatic apparatus, equipped with apparatus for photographing, surveyed the far side of the Moon (about 70% of the surface) and transmitted its image to Earth. The device had an orientation system with sensors of the Sun and the Moon and jet engines running on compressed gas, Continue reading
When, when moving around the Earth, the Moon falls into the cone of the earth’s shadow, which is cast by the globe illuminated by the Sun, a total lunar eclipse occurs. If only a part of the Moon plunges into the shadow of the Earth, then a partial eclipse occurs. A total lunar eclipse can last about 1.5 to 2 hours. It can be observed from all over the night hemisphere of the Earth, where the moon is above the horizon at the time of the eclipse. Therefore, in any area, full lunar eclipses can be observed much more often than solar ones.
During a total lunar eclipse of the moon, the lunar disk remains visible, but it usually acquires a dark red hue. This phenomenon is explained by the refraction of sunlight in the earth’s atmosphere. Passing through the earth’s atmosphere, the sun’s rays are scattered and refracted. Moreover, mainly short-wave radiation is Continue reading
Millions more years pass by. Nature “found” the best amino acid sequences in the chains of polypeptides – protein molecules appeared – the future bricks of living organisms. Replication has become more sophisticated and improved. The matrix is no longer a mechanical form, but a conventional, chemical “record” of the order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Record in the form of a portable chain of special molecules – nucleotides. The evolution of matter rises to a new level. Long, bizarrely curved strands of different protein molecules cling to each other and gradually assemble. First into small lumps, then into larger lumps that look like tangles or drops. Molecules that are closely in contact in a lump have Continue reading