Despite the high level of astronomical information of the peoples of the ancient East, their views on the structure of the world were limited to direct visual sensations. Therefore, in Babylon, views have developed that the Earth has the appearance of a convex island surrounded by the ocean. Inside the Earth, as if there is a “kingdom of the dead.” The sky is a solid dome resting on the earth’s surface and separating the “lower waters” (the ocean flowing around the earth’s island) from the “upper” (rain) waters. Celestial bodies are attached to this dome, as if gods live above the sky. The sun rises in the morning, leaving the eastern gate, and sets through the western gate, and at night it moves underground.
According to the ideas of the ancient Egyptians, the Universe looks like a large valley, stretched from north to south, in the center of it is Egypt. The sky was likened to a large iron roof, which is supported on pillars, on it in Continue reading
In the solar system there are many different types of free celestial bodies that do not have their own orbits. Such bodies can be asteroids, meteorites, comets, as well as free moons that do not belong to the solar system. In Space, there is also enough “garbage” – debris destroyed by a collision or explosion of celestial bodies. It has long been known that meteorites and other celestial bodies often fall on Earth, moons, and other planets. The earth and other planets are well protected from such “bombing” with their atmosphere, in which most of the small falling objects burn up. But the moons that do not have an atmosphere are literally dotted with impact craters. For example, the satellite of Saturn Mimas in the photo on the left, taken by Cassini in 2005, almost all is covered with craters from the smallest to the gigantic. The sun is not only an exception, but, on the contrary, due to its gigantic attraction, it is thousands of times more likely to undergo such Continue reading
Venus was known to people from ancient times. (See a brief description of this planet and interesting facts about it.) It received its modern name in honor of the Roman goddess of beauty, whom the Greeks called Aphrodite. The Babylonians called this planet Astarta, also named after the goddess of love. In ancient China, Venus was designated as the “golden star” and associated with the “element of gold.” In ancient India, Sura (Ushanas Kawya), the mentor of the asura demons, rivals of the Indian gods, was considered the lord of Venus.
Venus rises in the sky either in the evening or in the morning. The ancient Greeks long considered the “evening” and “morning” star two different bodies, calling the first Hesperus (“Evening”), and the second Continue reading