Is a black hole already found?
Scientists strongly believe that black holes really exist. Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity predicted the existence of such objects back in 1917, and over the past decades, astronomers have found plenty of evidence of their presence in many areas of outer space.
More than 5 objects are known, which probably include black holes. However, there is only indirect evidence, but there is no conclusive evidence. The most likely candidate for black holes is the X-ray source Cygnus X-1, discovered in the early 1970s in X-binary systems. The mass of the source in this system, which can be estimated from the observed speed of the optical star in its orbit and Kepler’s laws, exceeds the limiting mass for a neutron star. The Chandra X-ray Observatory found in several galaxies with a high rate of star formation the location of possible black holes with an average mass.
Maybe the XTE J1118 + 480 is the same black hole?
Data from the DSS Digital Sky Survey created by the Space Telescope Institute played an important role in discovering an ancient black hole moving through the galactic vicinity of the Sun. This black hole is paired with a small companion star whose substance it absorbs, moves in an elongated orbit, crossing the distant regions of the Milky Way. Scientists suggest that the black hole is the remnant of a massive star, which ended its existence billions of years ago and, due to gravitational effects, was thrown out of its native star cluster.
The object under study is designated XTE J1118 + 480; it was discovered during observations on the Rossi-XTE X-ray satellite on March 29, 2000. Later, optical and radio surveillance made it possible to determine that the distance to it is 6,000 light years.
As you know, most of the stars of the Milky Way are in a thin galactic disk. However, some of the stars are contained in globular clusters, consisting of hundreds of thousands of old stars and moving in orbits extending beyond the galactic plane. The orbit of the XTE J1118 + 480 is similar to the orbits of globular clusters, and the speed at which it moves is 145 km / s relative to the Sun.
The star that became the parent of the black hole in the XTE J1118 + 480 may have formed in a globular cluster before the Galaxy’s disk appeared. The large age of the black hole is also indicated by the fact that the companion star whose substance the hole absorbs has lost almost all of its mass, which now amounts to no more than a third of the mass of the Sun. Scientists believe that the capture of a companion star occurred even before the black hole ejected from the cluster.
The relative proximity to the Sun allowed astronomers to determine the parameters of the motion of the black hole using a network of radio telescopes VLBA. VLBA observations were carried out in May and July 2001, while the highest resolution of the network was used to its full potential to detect the displacement of the object relative to more distant celestial bodies.
Although several “medium-mass” black holes were discovered earlier, it is now possible to observe a large number of such objects and find out their relationship with the formation of stars and the formation of much more massive black holes. At a conference of the American Astronomical Society, three independent groups reported dozens of X-ray sources discovered in galaxies with a high rate of star formation. These sources have a point-like appearance and are tens of thousands of times brighter than similar sources discovered in our galaxy and galaxy.
The first person to suggest the existence of black holes was Simon-Pierre de Laplace, who, studying the theory of gravity, put forward a hypothesis about the existence of objects moving at a speed exceeding the speed of light. The scientist assumed that there is a body whose speed is so high (about 300,000 km / s) that light cannot be emitted from its surface.
Stephen Hawking, despite his difficult life, clouded by speechlessness and complete immobility, wrote many works, including those related to attempts to explain the physical foundations of the Big Bang theory, recognition of black holes and a significant deformation of space and time inside them.
One of the most interesting facts put forward by Hawking was that black holes are not completely “black”, but can emit radiation due to quantum effects until they disappear or explode.
You can learn a lot of interesting things about black holes by studying them closely. In the abysses of the Universe there are so many new and unknown things that, I think, will be studied for a long time to come.
There is confidence that with the improvement of technology, we will someday be able to find out, refute or prove today’s assumptions and hypotheses that people expressed hundreds of years ago.