Planet Venus - History of Research
Venus was known to people from ancient times. (See a brief description of this planet and interesting facts about it.) It received its modern name in honor of the Roman…

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Big Big Bang Challenges
Upon careful consideration, the cosmological theory of the origin and structure of the universe begins to crack at the seams. Take a look at the starry night sky. How did…

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Achievements in space exploration
Many thousands of years ago, looking at the night sky, a man dreamed of flying to the stars. Billions of shimmering night luminaries made him carry away the thought into…

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Man on the moon

Work on this program began in the USA in the late 60s. It was decided to carry out a man’s flight to the moon and his successful return to Earth over the next ten years. In the summer of 1962, after lengthy discussions, they came to the conclusion that the most efficient and reliable way is to place the complex in the command and computing module, which includes the command and auxiliary modules, and the lunar landing module into the lunar orbit. The first priority was the creation of a launch vehicle capable of introducing at least 300 tons into low Earth orbit and at least 100 tons into low Earth orbit. At the same time, the development of the Apollo spacecraft, designed for the flight of American astronauts to the moon, was underway. In February 1966, the Apollo was tested in an unmanned version.
However, what happened on January 27, 1967 prevented the successful implementation of the program. On this day, astronauts E. White, R. Guffy, V. Grissom died in a flash of flame during a training on Earth. After investigating the reasons, the tests resumed and became more complicated. In December 1968, Apollo 8 (still without a lunar cabin) was launched into a selenocentric orbit, with the subsequent return to the Earth’s atmosphere with a second cosmic velocity. It was a manned flight around the moon.
The pictures helped to clarify the place of the future landing on the moon of people. July 16, “Apollo 11” launched to the moon and July 19 entered the lunar orbit. On June 21, 1969, the human foot first stepped on the surface of the moon.
Friek Borman, the commander of the Apollo 8 spacecraft, said: “The flight became possible thanks to the work of thousands of people. And not only in the USA. Without the first artificial Earth satellite and the flight of Yuri Gagarin, without research from scientists from many countries, flights to the Moon could not would take place … the earth is really a very small planet. We have seen this with our own eyes, and earthlings, its inhabitants, must unite in front of the cosmic world. The development of outer space is the task of all mankind, and not just of individual countries. ”
The day of the landing lasted a very long time, and all this time the astronauts did not have a moment’s rest. They were completely absorbed in the operation of the computer and therefore could not pay due attention to the orientation “on the ground.” And only when they sought to descend below 3 thousand feet, they first managed to look out. The horizon on the moon is very close, so you won’t see much from this height.
The only landmark they noticed was a large and very impressive crater. In the last seconds of the descent, the Orla engine picked up a significant amount of dust, which at a very high speed flew radially, almost parallel to the surface of the Moon. On Earth, dust usually weighs in the air and settles very slowly. Since there is no atmosphere on the moon, lunar dust lies along a flat and low path, leaving behind a clear space. It took the astronauts a little longer to get out of the Eagle than anticipated. Neil Armstrong, the commander of Apolloon-11, before setting foot on the lunar surface, considered what to say at that moment. He thought about this before the flight, but only after the lunar invasion said: “one small step for man is a huge leap for mankind.”
While on the lunar surface, the astronauts did not feel any smells either in suits or in helmets. And having returned to the cabin and taking off the helmets, we felt a smell. The smell of the lunar soil, pungent, like the smell of gunpowder. They brought a lot of moondust into the cabin on spacesuits and shoes. The smell was immediately felt. The lunar surface at the time of the landing was brightly lit. In the black sky, neither stars nor planets, with the exception of the Earth, were visible.
The lunar compartment was upright. It was not difficult to maintain balance. Standing up after an accidental fall was also not difficult. In general, the sensation of attraction on the Moon is more pleasant than earthly, and even more pleasant than the state of weightlessness, as N. Armstrong wrote.
The sun during the stay of the ship on the moon rose above the horizon. On average, the lighting level turned out to be very high (as on a cloudless day on Earth). The shadows were thick, but not black. Sunlight reflected off the slopes of the lunar craters, and visibility was well established.
The peculiar photometric properties of the moon have long been known. There was a fear that at some point the eyes of the astronauts blinded by the Sun would not be able to see anything, therefore the trajectory of the descent of the lunar compartment was designed so that the sun’s rays did not interfere with the astronauts at the point of landing. Color is barely noticeable or not detected at all. With a slight height of the Sun above the horizon, it is practically impossible to distinguish colors. When the sun rises above the horizon to 10?, Brown and brown shades begin to appear. And when leaving the cockpit, the astronauts unexpectedly discovered that the debris of the rocks and partially of the lunar soil were dark gray or coal gray.

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