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White dwarfs are one of the most fascinating topics in the history of astronomy: celestial bodies were discovered for the first time, possessing properties that are very far from those…

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What about the galaxies?
We have already seen that all attempts by cosmologists to squeeze the Universe into the narrow framework of their materialistic ideas have led to nothing. Moreover, their theories do not…

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The sun
The sun - the central body of the solar system - is a hot plasma ball. The sun is the star closest to Earth. The light from it reaches us…

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Achievements in space exploration

Many thousands of years ago, looking at the night sky, a man dreamed of flying to the stars. Billions of shimmering night luminaries made him carry away the thought into the boundless distances of the Universe, awakened the imagination, forced him to think about the secrets of the universe. Centuries passed, man gained ever greater power over nature, but the dream of flying to the stars remained as unrealizable as thousands of years ago. Legends and myths of all nations are full of stories about flying to the moon, the sun and the stars. The means for such flights offered by the folk fantasy were primitive: a chariot drawn by eagles, wings attached to the hands of a person.

In the 19th century, a fantastic story appeared by the writer Jules Verne “From a cannon to the moon”. The famous English writer Herbert Wales described a fantastic journey to the moon in a shell whose body was made of material not subject to gravity.

Various means were proposed for space flight. Science fiction writers also mentioned rockets. However, these missiles were a technically unreasonable dream. For many centuries, scientists have not named the only means at the disposal of man, with the help of which one can overcome the powerful force of gravity and carry into interplanetary space. The great honor to open the way for people to other worlds fell to the lot of our compatriot K. E. Tsiolkovsky.

Many centuries have passed since gunpowder was invented and the first rocket was created, which was used mainly for amusement fireworks on days of great celebrations. But only Tsiolkovsky showed that the only aircraft capable of penetrating the atmosphere and even permanently leaving the Earth is a rocket.

In 1911, Tsiolkovsky uttered his prophetic words: “Humanity will not remain forever on Earth, but, in pursuit of light and space, from the beginning timidly penetrate beyond the atmosphere, and then conquer everything around the earth’s space.” And from that moment the great minds of the planet began to work on the beginning of real space exploration … But now the twentieth century has passed and humanity has entered the century of space exploration. But what has humanity achieved in the last 50 years? What role do advances in space exploration play in our daily lives? And finally, what is the role of astronautics itself for humanity?

2 first steps

The first steps in the development of outer space began with the launch of the first artificial earth satellite. The main impetus for this was the confrontation between two superpowers (USSR and USA) – the Cold War. Each sought to open new borders, and a new direction was the exploration of outer space. October 4, 1957, humanity entered the era of space exploration. On this day, the world’s first Soviet artificial Earth satellite was launched into near-earth orbit.

Soviet scientists and engineers solved the most complicated scientific and technical problems associated with the creation of rocket and space technology and the provision of space flight. This outstanding achievement became convincing evidence of the inexhaustible possibilities of the human mind, vividly demonstrated the level of science and technology in our country.

The launch vehicle, having provided at the end of the active section the first space velocity equal to 7.9 km / s, launched the satellite into geocentric (near-Earth) orbit with a maximum distance of 947 km from the Earth’s surface (at the apogee) and 228 km with a minimum depression (at perigee) . The initial period of the satellite’s revolution around the Earth was 96.2 minutes, and the inclination was 65’1 ’. The satellite weight was 83.6 kg, its body was in the shape of a ball with a diameter of 0.58 m. The equipment and power supplies were housed in a sealed enclosure.

The first space explorer actively worked for three weeks. With its help, the first measurements of atmospheric density were carried out, data on the propagation of radio signals in the ionosphere were obtained.

In this flight, for the first time, the correctness of theoretical calculations and technical solutions underlying the design of launch vehicles and satellites was practically verified and confirmed.

The first turns of the satellite became the first steps of the world astronautics. The USSR won the “palm” in the field of space exploration, but the USA also did not want to lag behind, and the next event of world importance was the flight to the moon …

Moon Exploration History

The moon is always turned to the Earth on the same side, the so-called visible hemisphere. The reverse side (its other hemisphere) is not visible from the Earth. This is because the Moon makes one revolution around the Earth in exactly the same time during which it makes one rotation around its axis. It became possible to see what is at the back of the moon only with the help of space research.

This was made the third of a series of lunar stations launched in the USSR in 1959. Caught on the calculated trajectory behind the moon, the station photographed its surface. Then, right on board the station, under zero gravity, the film was developed, after it was dried, the pictures were scanned.

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