Saturn
Saturn is the second largest among the planets of the solar system. Its equatorial diameter is only slightly smaller than that of Jupiter, but Saturn is more than three times…

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Inflationary universe
In addition to the question of the origin of the universe, modern cosmologists face a number of other problems. So that the standard theory of the big bang could predict…

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Hubble Space Telescope
From the very beginning of astronomy, from the time of Galileo, astronomers have one common goal: to see more, to see further, to see deeper. And the Hubble Space Telescope,…

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Planet formation

Let us return to the satellites of our Sun, to those fragments of the nebula that broke away from the central clot under the action of centrifugal force and began to circle around it. It is here that conditions are created that facilitate the separation of light and heavy particles of the nebula. Something similar to our ancient way of extracting gold by washing out of gold-bearing sand or by sifting grain in threshers is happening. A stream of water or air carries away light particles, leaving heavy ones. Satellite clouds are at very different distances from the sun. Far it almost does not warm. But in the family – his heat evaporates everything that can evaporate. And its dazzling brightest light, working like a kind of “wind”, blows out of them everything that has evaporated, in general everything is light, leaving only that heavier that “you will not budge.” Therefore, there are almost no light gases – hydrogen and helium, the main component of the gas and dust nebula. There are few other “volatile” substances left. All this is carried away by the hot “wind” into the distance. As a result, after some time, the chemical composition of the satellite clouds becomes completely different. In the distant – he almost did not change. And in those that circled near the sun, which emits heat and light, there was only “calcined” and “swollen” material – a distinguished “precious vital impurity” of heavy elements. The material for creating an inhabited planet is ready. The process of turning the “material” into the “product” begins, the particles of the nebula into planets.

a) Stage one – sticking together of particles.
In distant satellite clouds, numerous molecules of light gases and rare light dust particles gradually gather in huge loose balls of low density. In the future, these are the planets of the Jupiter group. In satellite clouds close to the Sun, heavy dust particles stick together into dense rocky lumps. They are combined into huge massive rocky boulders, monstrous gray angular bulks floating in orbits around their stars. Moving in different, sometimes intersecting orbits, these “asteroids”, each tens of kilometers in size, collide. If at a small relative speed, then they are “pressed” one into another, “piled up”, “stick” one onto the other. Combine into larger ones. If at high speed, they crumple, crumble each other, creating a new “trifle”, countless fragments, fragments that again go a long way to unification. For hundreds of millions of years, this process of fusion of small particles into large celestial bodies has been going on. As their sizes increase, they become more and more spherical. The mass grows – the force of gravity on their surface increases. The upper layers press on the inner. The protruding parts turn out to be heavier and gradually sink into the thickness of the underlying masses, pushing them underneath. Those, stepping aside, fill the hollows. The rough “lump” is gradually smoothed out. As a result, several relatively small, but very dense, consisting of very heavy material, terrestrial planets are formed near the Sun. Among them is the Earth. All of them sharply differ from the planets of the Jupiter group in terms of their rich chemical composition, an abundance of heavy elements, and a large specific gravity. Now let’s look at the Earth. Against a starry background, illuminated on one side by bright sunshine, a huge stone ball floats in front of us. It is not yet smooth not even. Still protruding in some places ledges blocking his blocks. The “seams” between them that are not completely swimming are also “read”. This is still “rough work.” But here is the interesting thing. There is already an atmosphere. A bit unclear, obviously from dust, but without clouds. These are hydrogen and helium squeezed from the bowels of the planet, which at one time adhered to stony particles and by some miracle survived, were not “blown away” by the sun’s rays. The primary atmosphere of the Earth. She will not last long. “Not by washing, so by rolling” The sun will destroy it. Light moving molecules of hydrogen and helium under the action of heating by solar rays will gradually disappear into space. This process is called dissipation.

b) Stage two – warming up.
Inside the planet, in a mixture with others, they are trapped, “locked” radioactive substances. They are distinguished by the fact that they continuously generate heat, heat up slightly. But in the thickness of the planet this heat has nowhere to go, no ventilation, no washing moisture. Above them is a powerful “coat” of overlying layers. Heat builds up. From this radioactive heating, softening of the entire thickness of the planet begins. In a softened form, the substances, which at one time were chaotic, randomly blinding it, begin now to be distributed by weight. Heavy gradually sink, drown toward the center. Lungs are squeezed by them, rise higher, float closer to the surface. Gradually, the planet acquires a structure similar to our Earth today, in the center, compressed by the monstrous weight of layers piled on top, a heavy core. It is surrounded by a “mantle” – a thick layer of material lighter weight. And finally, the outside is very thin, with a thickness of only a few tens of kilometers, the “crust”, consisting of the lightest rocks.

Uranus and Neptune
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun in the solar system. In diameter, it is almost four times larger than the Earth. Very far from the Sun and relatively…

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The sun
The sun - the central body of the solar system - is a hot plasma ball. The sun is the star closest to Earth. The light from it reaches us…

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Asteroid shape and rotation
Asteroids are so small that gravity is negligible. She is not able to give them the shape of a ball, which gives the planets and their large companions, crushing and…

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The history of the discovery of Pluto
In the 1840s, with the help of Newtonian mechanics, Urbain Le Verrier predicted the position of the then undetected planet Neptune based on an analysis of perturbations of the orbit…

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