Giant leap into space exploration
How did the work of the first American expedition on the lunar surface begin? Immediately after the ship landed on the plain of the lunar Sea of ​​Tranquility, the Apollo…

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Is a black hole already found?
Scientists strongly believe that black holes really exist. Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity predicted the existence of such objects back in 1917, and over the past decades, astronomers have…

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Galaxy
Since the XVII century, the most important goal of astronomers has been the study of the Milky Way - this giant collection of stars that Galileo saw through his telescope.…

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Planet formation

Let us return to the satellites of our Sun, to those fragments of the nebula that broke away from the central clot under the action of centrifugal force and began to circle around it. It is here that conditions are created that facilitate the separation of light and heavy particles of the nebula. Something similar to our ancient way of extracting gold by washing out of gold-bearing sand or by sifting grain in threshers is happening. A stream of water or air carries away light particles, leaving heavy ones. Satellite clouds are at very different distances from the sun. Far it almost does not warm. But in the family – his heat evaporates everything that can evaporate. And its dazzling brightest light, working like a kind of “wind”, blows out of them everything that has evaporated, in general everything is light, leaving only that heavier that “you will not budge.” Therefore, there are almost no light gases – hydrogen and helium, the main component of the gas and dust nebula. There are few other “volatile” substances left. All this is carried away by the hot “wind” into the distance. As a result, after some time, the chemical composition of the satellite clouds becomes completely different. In the distant – he almost did not change. And in those that circled near the sun, which emits heat and light, there was only “calcined” and “swollen” material – a distinguished “precious vital impurity” of heavy elements. The material for creating an inhabited planet is ready. The process of turning the “material” into the “product” begins, the particles of the nebula into planets.

a) Stage one – sticking together of particles.
In distant satellite clouds, numerous molecules of light gases and rare light dust particles gradually gather in huge loose balls of low density. In the future, these are the planets of the Jupiter group. In satellite clouds close to the Sun, heavy dust particles stick together into dense rocky lumps. They are combined into huge massive rocky boulders, monstrous gray angular bulks floating in orbits around their stars. Moving in different, sometimes intersecting orbits, these “asteroids”, each tens of kilometers in size, collide. If at a small relative speed, then they are “pressed” one into another, “piled up”, “stick” one onto the other. Combine into larger ones. If at high speed, they crumple, crumble each other, creating a new “trifle”, countless fragments, fragments that again go a long way to unification. For hundreds of millions of years, this process of fusion of small particles into large celestial bodies has been going on. As their sizes increase, they become more and more spherical. The mass grows – the force of gravity on their surface increases. The upper layers press on the inner. The protruding parts turn out to be heavier and gradually sink into the thickness of the underlying masses, pushing them underneath. Those, stepping aside, fill the hollows. The rough “lump” is gradually smoothed out. As a result, several relatively small, but very dense, consisting of very heavy material, terrestrial planets are formed near the Sun. Among them is the Earth. All of them sharply differ from the planets of the Jupiter group in terms of their rich chemical composition, an abundance of heavy elements, and a large specific gravity. Now let’s look at the Earth. Against a starry background, illuminated on one side by bright sunshine, a huge stone ball floats in front of us. It is not yet smooth not even. Still protruding in some places ledges blocking his blocks. The “seams” between them that are not completely swimming are also “read”. This is still “rough work.” But here is the interesting thing. There is already an atmosphere. A bit unclear, obviously from dust, but without clouds. These are hydrogen and helium squeezed from the bowels of the planet, which at one time adhered to stony particles and by some miracle survived, were not “blown away” by the sun’s rays. The primary atmosphere of the Earth. She will not last long. “Not by washing, so by rolling” The sun will destroy it. Light moving molecules of hydrogen and helium under the action of heating by solar rays will gradually disappear into space. This process is called dissipation.

b) Stage two – warming up.
Inside the planet, in a mixture with others, they are trapped, “locked” radioactive substances. They are distinguished by the fact that they continuously generate heat, heat up slightly. But in the thickness of the planet this heat has nowhere to go, no ventilation, no washing moisture. Above them is a powerful “coat” of overlying layers. Heat builds up. From this radioactive heating, softening of the entire thickness of the planet begins. In a softened form, the substances, which at one time were chaotic, randomly blinding it, begin now to be distributed by weight. Heavy gradually sink, drown toward the center. Lungs are squeezed by them, rise higher, float closer to the surface. Gradually, the planet acquires a structure similar to our Earth today, in the center, compressed by the monstrous weight of layers piled on top, a heavy core. It is surrounded by a “mantle” – a thick layer of material lighter weight. And finally, the outside is very thin, with a thickness of only a few tens of kilometers, the “crust”, consisting of the lightest rocks.

Supernova stars
About seven thousand years ago, a star suddenly exploded in a remote corner of outer space, dropping the outer layers of matter. A relatively large and massive star suddenly ran…

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Planet Venus - History of Research
Venus was known to people from ancient times. (See a brief description of this planet and interesting facts about it.) It received its modern name in honor of the Roman…

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NEUTRAL STARS
Stars whose mass is 1.5-3 times greater than that of the Sun will not be able to stop their compression at the stage of a white dwarf at the end…

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Big Bang Scenario
Like any scheme that claims to explain the data on the spectrum of microwave cosmic radiation, the chemical composition of pre-galactic matter and the hierarchy of the scales of cosmic…

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