Atmosphere of the Moon and Moon Space
Since the mass of the moon is negligible, the gas shell around it must be very rarefied, i.e. practically absent. The main components of the gas shell were hydrogen, helium,…

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Hubble Space Telescope
From the very beginning of astronomy, from the time of Galileo, astronomers have one common goal: to see more, to see further, to see deeper. And the Hubble Space Telescope,…

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Uranus and Neptune
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun in the solar system. In diameter, it is almost four times larger than the Earth. Very far from the Sun and relatively…

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Solar system. Hypothesis on the origin of sunspots

In the solar system there are many different types of free celestial bodies that do not have their own orbits. Such bodies can be asteroids, meteorites, comets, as well as free moons that do not belong to the solar system. In Space, there is also enough “garbage” – debris destroyed by a collision or explosion of celestial bodies. It has long been known that meteorites and other celestial bodies often fall on Earth, moons, and other planets. The earth and other planets are well protected from such “bombing” with their atmosphere, in which most of the small falling objects burn up. But the moons that do not have an atmosphere are literally dotted with impact craters. For example, the satellite of Saturn Mimas in the photo on the left, taken by Cassini in 2005, almost all is covered with craters from the smallest to the gigantic. The sun is not only an exception, but, on the contrary, due to its gigantic attraction, it is thousands of times more likely to undergo such “bombing.” But unlike the moons, where every fall forever leaves a mark, fire on the surface of the sun destroys over time all the signs of falls.

Spots on the Sun arise as a result of the fall of various celestial bodies on it.

Not all falling objects form spots, most of them, having small sizes or consisting mainly of ice, burn out before they reach the surface, only the largest ones leave a temporary mark.

Almost all the features of sunspots can be explained by the fall of cosmic bodies.

Dark spots are areas of the solar surface that are extinguished by a fallen object, and not suppressed by a magnetic field, as it is now mistakenly assumed. The perturbation of the magnetic field in the spot zone is not the cause of their appearance, but rather a consequence. The cleared area gives free access to the magnetic field. A fallen object is, figuratively speaking, fuel. Like a log, thrown into the fire, first extinguishes it where it falls, then the fire flares up with renewed vigor.

“Sunspots are dark areas on the Sun whose temperature is lowered by about 1500 K compared with the surrounding areas of the photosphere …”.

The absence of fire makes these areas relatively colder than the rest of the sun. The temperature of falling objects is lower than the temperature of the surface of the Sun, although, when approaching the Sun, they quickly warm up and their surface begins to burn.

“First, a torch arises in this place, a little later and to the west – a small point called a pore, several thousand kilometers in size …”

In the photo on the left, the comet fell on the Sun on May 5, 2011. And this is not the only recorded case of the fall of comets on the Sun. A powerful bright flash in the form of a torch arose even before the comet fell to the surface. This image confirms that the torch preceding the appearance of the spot and the fall of the cosmic bodies are interconnected phenomena.

“Spots are usually formed in groups, but sometimes there is a single spot that lives for only a few days, or a bipolar group: two spots of different magnetic polarity connected by magnetic field lines …”

Single spots can be explained by the fall on the Sun of cosmic bodies, entirely consisting of solid rock, which are not destroyed by gravity. The usual, group appearance of spots, just the opposite, can be explained by the destructive effect of gravity.

The pictures show two similar phenomena: arc welding and arc discharge between two spots of opposite polarity. The supposedly fallen object is pushed to the surface at the same angle at which it entered, but in the opposite direction, forming a later symmetrical spot.

“The largest groups of spots always have a connected group in another hemisphere (northern or southern). Magnetic lines in such cases come out from spots in one hemisphere and enter spots in another …”

Perhaps the largest objects have enough power to pass through the Sun and exit from the opposite side. A special case is if the fallen object is not a stone meteorite or an ice comet, but the moon, that is, a small planet with a hard shell and a plasma core (often having its own magnetic field). When the shell is destroyed by gravity, the plasma core of the moon is released, and it should look like a flash.

Click to enlarge. 6. “Groups of spots often extend parallel to the solar equator …”
A striking example illustrating the formation of group spots is the fall of comet Shoemakers-Levy on Jupiter in 1994. By force of gravity, the comet was fragmented into 21 fragments. In the picture of Jupiter (left), fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy, with dark spots, fell in the southern hemisphere along a line parallel to the equator.

Radiation of the sun
The radio emission of the Sun has two components - constant and variable. During strong solar flares, the radio emission of the Sun increases by a factor of thousands or…


Achievements in space exploration
Many thousands of years ago, looking at the night sky, a man dreamed of flying to the stars. Billions of shimmering night luminaries made him carry away the thought into…


Communication satellites
Signalers were among the first to receive practical benefits from the launch of satellites. The launch of satellite transponders into near-Earth orbit made it possible to solve the problem of…


Saturn is the second largest among the planets of the solar system. Its equatorial diameter is only slightly smaller than that of Jupiter, but Saturn is more than three times…