Ptolemy's system.
The formation of astronomy as an exact science began thanks to the work of the outstanding Greek scientist Hipparchus. He first began systematic astronomical observations and their comprehensive mathematical analysis,…

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The history of the discovery of Pluto
In the 1840s, with the help of Newtonian mechanics, Urbain Le Verrier predicted the position of the then undetected planet Neptune based on an analysis of perturbations of the orbit…

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Black holes
Black holes are objects of the universe that attract the interest of many astronomers. Black holes, space objects, the existence of which is predicted by the general theory of relativity.…

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Inflationary universe

In addition to the question of the origin of the universe, modern cosmologists face a number of other problems. So that the standard theory of the big bang could predict the distribution of matter that we observe, its initial state must be characterized by a very high degree of organization. The question immediately arises: how could such a structure be formed? The physicist A. Gut from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology proposed his version of the Big Bang theory, which explains the spontaneous emergence of this organization, eliminating the need to artificially introduce exact parameters into the equations describing the initial state of the Universe. His model was called the “inflationary universe.” Its essence is that inside a rapidly expanding, overheated Universe, a small portion of space cools and begins to expand more, just as supercooled water rapidly freezes, expanding at the same time. This phase of rapid expansion eliminates some of the problems inherent in standard big bang theories.

However, the Gut model is also not without flaws. In order for the Gut equations to correctly describe the inflationary Universe, he had to very accurately set the initial parameters for his equations. Thus, he faced the same problem as the creators of other theories. He hoped to get rid of the need to specify the exact parameters of the conditions of the big bang, but for this he had to introduce his own parameterization, which remained unexplained. Gut and his co-author P. Steingart admit that in their model “calculations lead to acceptable predictions only if the given initial parameters of the equations vary in a very narrow range. Most theorists (including ourselves) consider such initial conditions unlikely. ” Further, the authors talk about their hopes that someday new mathematical theories will be developed that will allow them to make their model more believable.

This dependence on not yet discovered theories is another flaw in the Gut model. The unified field theory on which the inflationary universe model is based is completely hypothetical and “poorly amenable to experimental verification, since most of its predictions cannot be quantitatively verified in laboratory conditions.” (The theory of a single field is a rather dubious attempt by scientists to tie together some of the basic forces of the Universe.)

Another flaw in Gut’s theory is that it does not say anything about the origin of overheated and expanding matter. Gut checked the compatibility of his inflationary theory with three hypotheses of the origin of the universe. He first examined the standard big bang theory. In this case, according to Gut, the inflationary episode was to occur at one of the early stages of the evolution of the Universe. However, this model poses an unsolvable singularity problem. The second hypothesis postulates that the universe arose from chaos. Some of its sections were hot, others were cold, some expanded, while others contracted. In this case, inflation was to begin in an overheated and expanding region of the universe. True, Gut admits that this model cannot explain the origin of primary chaos.

The third possibility, which Guth prefers, is that an overheated expanding clot of matter arises in a quantum mechanical way from emptiness. In an article in the journal American Science in 1984, Gut and Steingart argue: “The inflationary model of the Universe gives us an idea of ​​the possible mechanism by which the observable Universe could emerge from an infinitely small piece of space. Knowing this, it is difficult to resist the temptation to take another step and come to the conclusion that the Universe arose literally from nothing. ”

However, no matter how attractive this idea may be for scientists who are ready to gang up on any mention of the possibility of the existence of a higher consciousness that created the Universe, upon careful consideration, it does not hold water. The “nothing” Gut speaks of is a hypothetical quantum-mechanical vacuum, described by an undeveloped single-field theory, which should combine the equations of quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity. In other words, at the moment, this vacuum cannot be described even theoretically.

It should be noted that physicists have described a simpler type of quantum-mechanical vacuum, which is a sea of ​​so-called “virtual particles”, fragments of atoms that “almost exist”. From time to time, some of these subatomic particles pass from the vacuum to the world of material reality. This phenomenon is called vacuum fluctuations. Vacuum fluctuations cannot be observed directly, but theories postulating their existence have been experimentally confirmed. According to these theories, particles and antiparticles for no reason arise from the vacuum and almost immediately disappear, annihilating each other.

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Hubble Space Telescope
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