Lunar mineralogy
How did lunar craters form? This issue has led to a long discussion between supporters of two hypotheses on the origin of lunar craters: volcanic and meteorite. According to the…

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In search of a peace system
1. Introduction. The starry sky at all times occupied the imagination of people. Why do stars light up? How many of them shine in the night? Are they far from…

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Moon exploration
It is not surprising that the first flight of the spacecraft above Earth orbit was directed to the moon. This honor belongs to the Soviet spacecraft Luna-l, which was launched…

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dreams solved

Moon surface

The main types of geological structures on the moon are continents and seas. The dark sea surface occupies more of the visible side of the moon, and is practically absent on the reverse side.

Moon surface
MATERIALS form the upper part of the lunar crust, the composition of which is from anorthosites on the surface to dunites and troctolites at the base of the crust. The thickness of this crust is estimated from a network of seismometers left by the Apollo on the Moon and recording the passage of waves from endogenous and shock moonquakes.

In the center of the visible side, the crust thickness averages 60 km, in the areas of the Nectar and Vostochny seas it increases to 80 – 100 km, and on the reverse side it can reach 100 – 150 km. Continue reading

Radiation of the sun

The radio emission of the Sun has two components – constant and variable. During strong solar flares, the radio emission of the Sun increases by a factor of thousands or even millions of times compared with the radio emission of a calm Sun. X-rays come mainly from the upper atmosphere and the corona. Emission is especially strong during years of maximum solar activity. The sun emits not only light, heat and all other types of electromagnetic radiation. It is also a source of a constant stream of particles – corpuscles. Neutrinos, electrons, protons, alpha particles, as well as heavier atomic nuclei make up the corpuscular radiation of the Sun. A significant part of this radiation is a more or less continuous outflow of plasma – the solar wind, which is a continuation of the outer layers of the solar atmosphere – the solar corona. Against the background of this constantly blowing plasma wind, individual regions on the Sun are sources of more directed, amplified, so- Continue reading

The sun

The sun – the central body of the solar system – is a hot plasma ball. The sun is the star closest to Earth. The light from it reaches us in 8.3 minutes. The sun has decisively influenced the formation of all the bodies of the solar system and created the conditions that led to the emergence and development of life on Earth. Its mass is 333,000 times the mass of the Earth and 750 times the mass of all other planets combined. Over the 5 billion years of the sun’s existence, already about half of the hydrogen in its central part has turned into helium. As a result of this process, the amount of energy that the sun radiates into world space is released. The radiation power of the Sun is very large: about 3.8 * 10 20 degrees MW. An insignificant part of solar energy, about half a billionth of a billion, falls on Earth. It maintains the earth’s Continue reading

Moon relief
Traditionally, two main types of landscape — continents and the sea — stand out on the moon. The prevailing shape of the relief of the lunar surface is the lunar…

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Black holes
Black holes are objects of the universe that attract the interest of many astronomers. Black holes, space objects, the existence of which is predicted by the general theory of relativity.…

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Lunar eclipses
When, when moving around the Earth, the Moon falls into the cone of the earth’s shadow, which is cast by the globe illuminated by the Sun, a total lunar eclipse…

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Star worlds
By the beginning of our century, the borders of the explored Universe had moved so far that they included the Galaxy. Many, if not all, then thought that this huge…

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