Hubble Space Telescope
From the very beginning of astronomy, from the time of Galileo, astronomers have one common goal: to see more, to see further, to see deeper. And the Hubble Space Telescope,…

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Giant planets
Jupiter, the fifth largest in the distance from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System, is 5.2 times farther from the Sun than the Earth, and spends…

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Atmosphere of the Moon and Moon Space
Since the mass of the moon is negligible, the gas shell around it must be very rarefied, i.e. practically absent. The main components of the gas shell were hydrogen, helium,…

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The sun

The sun – the central body of the solar system – is a hot plasma ball. The sun is the star closest to Earth. The light from it reaches us in 8.3 minutes. The sun has decisively influenced the formation of all the bodies of the solar system and created the conditions that led to the emergence and development of life on Earth. Its mass is 333,000 times the mass of the Earth and 750 times the mass of all other planets combined. Over the 5 billion years of the sun’s existence, already about half of the hydrogen in its central part has turned into helium. As a result of this process, the amount of energy that the sun radiates into world space is released. The radiation power of the Sun is very large: about 3.8 * 10 20 degrees MW. An insignificant part of solar energy, about half a billionth of a billion, falls on Earth. It maintains the earth’s Continue reading

Birth of the sun

And now the nebula has acquired a completely different look. A huge dark, slightly flattened cloud rotates majestically in the middle, and around it at different distances floating in circular orbits located approximately in the same plane, small “satellite clouds” detached from it. Follow the central cloud. It continues to condense. But now a new force begins to struggle with the force of gravity – the force of gas pressure. Indeed, in the middle of the cloud, more and more particles of matter are accumulating. There arises a “terrible crowding” and an “incredible crush” of particles. They rush about, striking each other harder. In the language of physicists, temperature and pressure rise in the center. At first it gets warm, then hot. Outside, we don’t notice this: the cloud is huge and opaque. Heat does not come out. But something Continue reading

The first models of the world.

Despite the high level of astronomical information of the peoples of the ancient East, their views on the structure of the world were limited to direct visual sensations. Therefore, in Babylon, views have developed that the Earth has the appearance of a convex island surrounded by the ocean. Inside the Earth, as if there is a “kingdom of the dead.” The sky is a solid dome resting on the earth’s surface and separating the “lower waters” (the ocean flowing around the earth’s island) from the “upper” (rain) waters. Celestial bodies are attached to this dome, as if gods live above the sky. The sun rises in the morning, leaving the eastern gate, and sets through the western gate, and at night it moves underground.
According to the ideas of the ancient Egyptians, the Universe looks like a large valley, stretched from north to south, in the center of it is Egypt. The sky was likened to a large iron roof, which is supported on pillars, on it in Continue reading

Inflationary universe
In addition to the question of the origin of the universe, modern cosmologists face a number of other problems. So that the standard theory of the big bang could predict…

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Man on the moon
Work on this program began in the USA in the late 60s. It was decided to carry out a man’s flight to the moon and his successful return to Earth…

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Galaxy
Since the XVII century, the most important goal of astronomers has been the study of the Milky Way - this giant collection of stars that Galileo saw through his telescope.…

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Time and Calendar
In very ancient times, people did not have a correct idea of ​​the shape and size of our planet and what place it occupies in space. Now we know that…

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