Giant planets
Jupiter, the fifth largest in the distance from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System, is 5.2 times farther from the Sun than the Earth, and spends…

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Quantum Physics and Reality
All modern cosmological theories also rely on quantum mechanics, which describes the behavior of atomic and subatomic particles. Quantum physics is fundamentally different from classical, Newtonian physics. Classical physics describes…

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Star worlds
By the beginning of our century, the borders of the explored Universe had moved so far that they included the Galaxy. Many, if not all, then thought that this huge…

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the peoples

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Moon surface

The main types of geological structures on the moon are continents and seas. The dark sea surface occupies more of the visible side of the moon, and is practically absent on the reverse side.

Moon surface
MATERIALS form the upper part of the lunar crust, the composition of which is from anorthosites on the surface to dunites and troctolites at the base of the crust. The thickness of this crust is estimated from a network of seismometers left by the Apollo on the Moon and recording the passage of waves from endogenous and shock moonquakes.

In the center of the visible side, the crust thickness averages 60 km, in the areas of the Nectar and Vostochny seas it increases to 80 – 100 km, and on the reverse side it can reach 100 – 150 km. Continue reading

Lunar mineralogy

How did lunar craters form? This issue has led to a long discussion between supporters of two hypotheses on the origin of lunar craters: volcanic and meteorite.

According to the volcanic hypothesis, which was put forward by the German astronomer Johann Schröter in the 80s of the 18th century, craters arose as a result of grandiose eruptions on the lunar surface. In 1824, his compatriot Franz von Gruutuisen proposed a meteorite theory that explained the formation of craters by the fall of meteorites.

Only 113 years later, in 1937, a Russian student Kirill Stanyukovich (future doctor of science and professor) proved that when meteorites strike at cosmic velocities, an explosion occurs, as a result of which not only a meteorite is melted, but also some of the rocks at the site of the impact. The explosive theory of Stanyukovich was developed in 1947-1960. by himself, and then by other researchers. Continue reading

Uranus and Neptune

Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun in the solar system. In diameter, it is almost four times larger than the Earth. Very far from the Sun and relatively poorly lit. Uranus was discovered by the English scientist W. Herschel in 1781. It is not possible to distinguish any details on the surface of Uranus due to the small angular dimensions of the planet in the field of view of the telescope. This complicates his research, including the study of the laws of rotation. Apparently, Uranus (unlike all other planets) rotates around its axis as if lying on its side. Such an inclination of the equator creates unusual lighting conditions: at the poles in a certain season, the sun’s rays fall almost vertically, and the polar day and polar night cover (alternately) the entire surface of the planet, except for a narrow strip along the equator. Since Uranus Continue reading

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Moon relief
Traditionally, two main types of landscape — continents and the sea — stand out on the moon. The prevailing shape of the relief of the lunar surface is the lunar…

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Lunar mineralogy
How did lunar craters form? This issue has led to a long discussion between supporters of two hypotheses on the origin of lunar craters: volcanic and meteorite. According to the…

...

Radiation of the sun
The radio emission of the Sun has two components - constant and variable. During strong solar flares, the radio emission of the Sun increases by a factor of thousands or…

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Asteroid temperature
Asteroids are through and through cold, lifeless bodies. In the distant past, their bowels could be warm and even hot due to radioactive or some other heat sources. Since then,…

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