Universe
More than anything else - the Universe itself, covering and including all planets, stars, galaxies, clusters, superclusters and cells. The range of modern telescopes reaches several billion light years. Planets,…

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Why exactly the earth?
In the meantime, about the Earth, perfectly prepared to become our cradle. We were lucky. On earth, several favorable circumstances for life coincided. Not every star becomes a Sun surrounded…

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The history of the discovery of Pluto
In the 1840s, with the help of Newtonian mechanics, Urbain Le Verrier predicted the position of the then undetected planet Neptune based on an analysis of perturbations of the orbit…

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Moon surface

The main types of geological structures on the moon are continents and seas. The dark sea surface occupies more of the visible side of the moon, and is practically absent on the reverse side.

Moon surface
MATERIALS form the upper part of the lunar crust, the composition of which is from anorthosites on the surface to dunites and troctolites at the base of the crust. The thickness of this crust is estimated from a network of seismometers left by the Apollo on the Moon and recording the passage of waves from endogenous and shock moonquakes.

In the center of the visible side, the crust thickness averages 60 km, in the areas of the Nectar and Vostochny seas it increases to 80 – 100 km, and on the reverse side it can reach 100 – 150 km. Continue reading

Lunar mineralogy

How did lunar craters form? This issue has led to a long discussion between supporters of two hypotheses on the origin of lunar craters: volcanic and meteorite.

According to the volcanic hypothesis, which was put forward by the German astronomer Johann Schröter in the 80s of the 18th century, craters arose as a result of grandiose eruptions on the lunar surface. In 1824, his compatriot Franz von Gruutuisen proposed a meteorite theory that explained the formation of craters by the fall of meteorites.

Only 113 years later, in 1937, a Russian student Kirill Stanyukovich (future doctor of science and professor) proved that when meteorites strike at cosmic velocities, an explosion occurs, as a result of which not only a meteorite is melted, but also some of the rocks at the site of the impact. The explosive theory of Stanyukovich was developed in 1947-1960. by himself, and then by other researchers. Continue reading

Giant planets

Jupiter, the fifth largest in the distance from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System, is 5.2 times farther from the Sun than the Earth, and spends almost 12 years in orbit. The equatorial diameter of Jupiter is 142,600 km (11 times the diameter of the Earth). The rotation period of Jupiter is the shortest of all the planets – 9h 50 min 30s at the equator and 9h 55min 40s in the middle latitudes. Thus, Jupiter, like the sun, does not rotate like a solid – the rotation speed is not the same at different latitudes. Due to the fast rotation, this planet has a strong compression at the poles. The mass of Jupiter is equal to 318 Earth masses. The average density is 1.33 g / cm3, which is close to the density of the Sun. The axis of Continue reading

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A new level of evolution
Millions more years pass by. Nature "found" the best amino acid sequences in the chains of polypeptides - protein molecules appeared - the future bricks of living organisms. Replication has…

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Moon exploration
It is not surprising that the first flight of the spacecraft above Earth orbit was directed to the moon. This honor belongs to the Soviet spacecraft Luna-l, which was launched…

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Man on the moon
Work on this program began in the USA in the late 60s. It was decided to carry out a man’s flight to the moon and his successful return to Earth…

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Time and Calendar
In very ancient times, people did not have a correct idea of ​​the shape and size of our planet and what place it occupies in space. Now we know that…

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