Asteroid shape and rotation
Asteroids are so small that gravity is negligible. She is not able to give them the shape of a ball, which gives the planets and their large companions, crushing and…

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Uranus and Neptune
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun in the solar system. In diameter, it is almost four times larger than the Earth. Very far from the Sun and relatively…

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Moon exploration
It is not surprising that the first flight of the spacecraft above Earth orbit was directed to the moon. This honor belongs to the Soviet spacecraft Luna-l, which was launched…

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Moon surface

The main types of geological structures on the moon are continents and seas. The dark sea surface occupies more of the visible side of the moon, and is practically absent on the reverse side.

Moon surface
MATERIALS form the upper part of the lunar crust, the composition of which is from anorthosites on the surface to dunites and troctolites at the base of the crust. The thickness of this crust is estimated from a network of seismometers left by the Apollo on the Moon and recording the passage of waves from endogenous and shock moonquakes.

In the center of the visible side, the crust thickness averages 60 km, in the areas of the Nectar and Vostochny seas it increases to 80 – 100 km, and on the reverse side it can reach 100 – 150 km. Continue reading

Lunar mineralogy

How did lunar craters form? This issue has led to a long discussion between supporters of two hypotheses on the origin of lunar craters: volcanic and meteorite.

According to the volcanic hypothesis, which was put forward by the German astronomer Johann Schröter in the 80s of the 18th century, craters arose as a result of grandiose eruptions on the lunar surface. In 1824, his compatriot Franz von Gruutuisen proposed a meteorite theory that explained the formation of craters by the fall of meteorites.

Only 113 years later, in 1937, a Russian student Kirill Stanyukovich (future doctor of science and professor) proved that when meteorites strike at cosmic velocities, an explosion occurs, as a result of which not only a meteorite is melted, but also some of the rocks at the site of the impact. The explosive theory of Stanyukovich was developed in 1947-1960. by himself, and then by other researchers. Continue reading

Giant planets

Jupiter, the fifth largest in the distance from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System, is 5.2 times farther from the Sun than the Earth, and spends almost 12 years in orbit. The equatorial diameter of Jupiter is 142,600 km (11 times the diameter of the Earth). The rotation period of Jupiter is the shortest of all the planets – 9h 50 min 30s at the equator and 9h 55min 40s in the middle latitudes. Thus, Jupiter, like the sun, does not rotate like a solid – the rotation speed is not the same at different latitudes. Due to the fast rotation, this planet has a strong compression at the poles. The mass of Jupiter is equal to 318 Earth masses. The average density is 1.33 g / cm3, which is close to the density of the Sun. The axis of Continue reading

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Radiation of the sun
The radio emission of the Sun has two components - constant and variable. During strong solar flares, the radio emission of the Sun increases by a factor of thousands or…

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Radiation of the sun
The radio emission of the Sun has two components - constant and variable. During strong solar flares, the radio emission of the Sun increases by a factor of thousands or…

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Big Bang Scenario
Like any scheme that claims to explain the data on the spectrum of microwave cosmic radiation, the chemical composition of pre-galactic matter and the hierarchy of the scales of cosmic…

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Galaxy
Since the XVII century, the most important goal of astronomers has been the study of the Milky Way - this giant collection of stars that Galileo saw through his telescope.…

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